Social Anxiety Disorder


Social anxiety disorder, sometimes referred to as social phobia, is a type of anxiety disorder that causes extreme fear in social settings. People with this disorder have trouble talking to people, meeting new people, and attending social gatherings. They fear being judged or scrutinized by others. They may understand that their fears are irrational or unreasonable, but feel powerless to overcome them.


Social anxiety is different from shyness. Shyness is usually short-term and doesn’t disrupt one’s life. Social anxiety is persistent and debilitating. It can affect one’s ability to work, attend school, and/or develop close relationships with people outside of their family. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) approximately 15 million American adults have social anxiety disorder. Symptoms of this disorder may start around the age of 13.


Social interaction may cause the following physical symptoms:

excessive sweating
trembling or shaking
difficulty speaking
dizziness or lightheadedness
rapid heart rate
Psychological symptoms may include:

worrying intensely about social situations
worrying for days or weeks before an event
avoiding social situations or trying to blend into the background if you must attend
worrying about embarrassing yourself in a social situation
worrying that other people will notice you are stressed or nervous
needing alcohol to face a social situation
missing school or work because of anxiety

It is normal to sometimes feel anxious. However, when you have social phobia, you have a constant fear of being judged by others or humiliated in front of them. You may avoid all social situations, including:

asking a question
job interviews
using public restrooms
talking on the phone
eating in public

Symptoms of social anxiety may not occur in all situations. You can have limited or selective anxiety. For example, symptoms may only occur when you’re eating in front of people or talking to strangers. Symptoms can occur in all social settings if you have an extreme case.

Types of This Disorder


The exact cause of social phobia is unknown. However, current research supports the idea that it is caused by a combination of environmental factors and genetics. Negative experiences also may contribute to this disorder, including:

family conflict
sexual abuse
Physical abnormalities such as a serotonin imbalance may contribute to this condition. Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that helps regulate mood. An overactive amygdala (a structure in the brain that controls fear response and feelings or thoughts of anxiety) may also cause these disorders.

Anxiety disorders can run in families. However, researchers aren’t sure if they’re actually linked to genetic factors. For example, a child might develop an anxiety disorder by learning the behavior of one of their parents who has an anxiety disorder. Children can also develop anxiety disorders as a result of being raised in controlling or overprotective environments.


There is no medical test to check for social anxiety disorder. Your healthcare provider will diagnose social phobia from a description of your symptoms. They can also diagnose social phobia after examining certain behavioral patterns.

During your appointment, your healthcare provider will ask you to explain your symptoms. They will also ask you to talk about situations that cause your symptoms. The criteria for social anxiety disorder includes:

a constant fear of social situations due to fear of humiliation or embarrassment
feeling anxious or panicky before a social interaction
a realization that your fears are unreasonable
anxiety that disrupts daily living


Several types of treatment are available for social anxiety disorder. Treatment results differ from person to person. Some people only need one type of treatment. However, others may require more than one. Your healthcare provider may refer you to a mental health provider for treatment. Sometimes, primary care providers may suggest medication to treat symptoms.

Treatment options for social anxiety disorder include:

Cognitive behavioral therapy
This therapy helps you learn how to control anxiety through relaxation and breathing, and how to replace negative thoughts with positive ones.

Exposure therapy
This type of therapy helps you gradually face social situations, rather than avoiding them.

Group therapy
This therapy helps you learn social skills and techniques to interact with people in social settings. Participating in group therapy with others who have the same fears may make you feel less alone. It will give you a chance to practice your new skills through role-playing.

At-home treatments include:

Avoiding caffeine
Foods such as coffee, chocolate, and soda are stimulants and may increase anxiety.

Getting plenty of sleep
Getting at least eight hours of sleep per night is recommended. Lack of sleep can increase anxiety and worsen symptoms of social phobia.

Your healthcare provider may prescribe medications that treat anxiety and depression if your condition doesn’t improve with therapy and lifestyle changes. These medications do not cure social anxiety disorder. However, they can improve your symptoms and help you function in your daily life. It can take up to three months for medication to improve your symptoms.

Medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat social anxiety disorder include Paxil, Zoloft, and Effexor XR. Your healthcare provider may start you with a low dose of medication and gradually increase your prescription to avoid side effects.

Common side effects of these medications include:

insomnia (sleeplessness)
weight gain
upset stomach
lack of sexual desire

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